Zinc Phosphate Coating- A thin, inorganic deposit formed on zinc treated with phosphoric acid.
Washing- Erosion of a paint film after rapid chalking.
Water Spotting- Defective appearance of the paint surface that is caused by water droplets.
Weathering- Paint film deterioration as a result of exposure to the weather.
Wet Edge- The length of time during which a paint can be brushed before it becomes too dry to flow out and blend together.
Wrinkling- Ridges and furrows that develop in a paint film when the paint dries.
Varnish Stain- Varnish that is colored with a dye. It does not have the same power of penetration as a true stain, and it leaves a colored coating on the surface.
Vehicle- The liquid portion of a paint. The vehicle is composed mainly of solvents, resins and oils.
Velvet- A gloss range between flat and eggshell.
Venetian Plaster- A surface coating, that creates a smooth surface in both depth and movement.
Vinyl-A resin with poor adhesion but good hardness, flexibility and resistance. Vinyl is used in plastics, wallcoverings, wood adhesives, swimming pools, tank linings and marine equipment.
Viscosity- The fluid thickness of a product. Viscosity is often referred to as consistency.
Voids- Holidays, holes.
volatile matter The portion of a coating that evaporates after application.
Underatomized- Not dispersed or broken up fine enough.
Uniformity- Not varying in gloss, sheen, color, hiding, or other property.
Urethane- A product resulting in a tough, chemical-resistant finish. Urethane requires mineral spirits for thinning and cleaning up.
Tackiness-Slight stickiness of the surface of an incompletely dried film when pressed with the finger.
Tack- The sticky condition of coating during drying at a stage between the wet and dry-to-touch stages.
Tannin blocking- The process of making tannin stains insoluble so they cannot stain the topcoat; e.g., by means of a primer before the topcoat on cedar siding.
Tannin- Soluble natural stain in woods such as cedar.
Texture- The roughness or irregularity of a surface.
Thickener- A substance added to a liquid to increase its viscosity.
Thinner- Volatile liquid used to adjust consistency or to modify other properties of paint, varnish and lacquer. Thinner is used to thin and clean up paint.
Thixotropy- The property of a material that causes it to change from a thick, pasty consistency to a fluid consistency upon agitation, brushing or rolling.
Tint Base- In a custom color system, the basic paint to which colorants are added; i.e., white or accent base.
Tinting- The final adjusting of a color of paint to the exact shade required. Tinting is achieved by adding small portions of colorant to a tint base of prepared paint.
Toner- A color modifier.
Topcoat- A coat designed to provide a “finish” capable of providing protection and color. (Previous coats are referred to as primers and undercoats.)
Touch-Up- Improving imperfect spots in a paint job.
Trompe L’oeil- French expression meaning, “To deceive the eye” A painting technique creating reality.
TSP-Tri-sodium phosphate, a cleaning agent. After the TSP has been dissolved in water, the solution is used in surface preparation. (After cleaning with TSP, the surface should be rinsed.)
TSP Substitute- A biodegradable cleaning agent that can be used instead of TSP.
Tubercule- Nodule; pimple.
Turpentine- A paint thinner (now replaced by mineral spirits) obtained by distilling pine tree secretions.
Sandpaper- A sheet of abrasive-coated paper that is used for smoothing rough surfaces.
Sash Brush- An angled brush used for cutting-in.
Satin Finish- Gloss level measuring 7-22% reflection using a 60 degree meter.
Scaling- Process of delamination.
Scrubbability- The ability of a paint film to withstand scrubbing and cleaning with water, soap, and other household cleaning agents.
Sealer- A coating used to prevent excessive absorption of subsequent coats into a porous surface.
Seeds- Small undesirable particles or granules other than dust that are found in a paint, varnish or lacquer.
Semi-Gloss- A degree of gloss that is glossier than low lustre but not as glossy as high gloss. Gloss level measuring 40-60% reflection.
Semi-Transparent- A degree of ability to hide the underlying surface greater than transparent but less than opaque or solid color.
Set Up- The quality of a film that has dried until it is a film. The film is said to have “set up”.
Settling- Paint separation in which pigments and other solids accumulate at the bottom of the container.
Sheen- The degree of luster measured at a 85 degree angle.
Sheen Uniformity- The even distribution of luster over a dried paint film.
Shellac- A natural resin, usually in the form of thin flakes, that is derived from a resinous substance called lac. Shellac is used to seal and finish floors, seal knots, etc.
Skin- A tough covering that forms on paint when the container is not tightly sealed.
Solids- The solids content of a paint that is left over after the solvent evaporates. (Same as nonvolatile.)
Solvent- The volatile part of oil-based paints that evaporates during drying. Solvent-based thinners are used for thinning and cleaning up oil-based paints. In latex paints, water performs similar functions.
Spackling Compound- A material used as a crack filler for preparing surfaces before painting.
Spalling- The cracking, breaking or splintering of materials, usually due to heat.
Spar Varnish- A very durable varnish designed for exterior surfaces.
Spatter- Small particles or drips of paint that occur during the application of paint.
Specular Gloss- Mirror-like reflectance.
Sponging- A faux painting technique using a sponge to form tanslusent layers of glaze.
Spot Priming- Application of primer to spots that require additional protection because the old paint has been removed.
Spraying- A method of application in which the paint is broken up into a fine mist that is directed onto the surface.
Spreading Rate- Coverage.
Stain- A solution designed to color a surface without hiding it. Solid color and latex stains are available. Stains may be latex or oil-based.
Stippling- Is the technique of using small dots to simulate varying degrees solidity or shading. Also known as “Pouncing”.
Streaking- The irregular occurrence of lines or streaks of various lengths and colors in an applied film. Streaking is usually caused by some form of contamination.
Strie- A glazing technique for achieving a subtle mix of fine stripes by pulling a wide stiff bristled brush through wet glaze.
Strip- To remove old finishes with paint remover.
Stucco- A masonry finish that is usually applied to the exterior surfaces of buildings in place of siding or other materials.
Substrate- The surface that is being painted.
Synthetic Brush- A paint brush with filaments that are made from a non-absorbent plastic material such as polyester or nylon, rather than animal hair. Synthetic brushes are usually used for latex paint.
Ragging- A decorative paint finish that is either applied or subtracted with a crumpled damp rag.
Reaching- (spray gun)- Extending spray stroke too far.
Reducer- A material which lowers viscosity but is not necessarily a solvent for the particular film former; thinner.
Resin- A natural or synthetic material that is the main ingredient of paint. It binds the ingredients together and improves the coat’s adhesion to the surface.
Roller- A paint application tool consisting of a revolving cylinder covered with fabric, polyester foam, lamb’s wool, etc.
Ropiness-A stringy look to the paint film. Ropiness is a result of the paint not flowing evenly onto the surface.
Runs- Blemishes on the film that are caused by excessive flow of the coating.
Rust Preventive Paint or Primer- The first coat of paint applied directly to iron or steel structures to slow down or prevent rust.